Earthrise taken from Apollo 8 on December 24, The idea of the Earth as an integrated whole, a living being, has a long tradition. James Lovelock gave this name to his hypothesis after a suggestion from the novelist William Golding , who was living in the same village as Lovelock at the time Bowerchalke , Wiltshire , UK. In the eighteenth century, as geology consolidated as a modern science, James Hutton maintained that geological and biological processes are interlinked. During the s he published works arguing that living organisms could reshape the planet as surely as any physical force.
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The chloroplasts of glaucophytes like this Glaucocystis have a peptidoglycan layer, evidence of their endosymbiotic origin from cyanobacteria. Weathering constant criticism of her ideas for decades, Margulis was famous for her tenacity in pushing her theory forward, despite the opposition she faced at the time.
This is one of the great achievements of twentieth-century evolutionary biology, and I greatly admire her for it. Neo-Darwinism, which insists on [the slow accrual of mutations by gene-level natural selection], is in a complete funk. I noticed that all kinds of bacteria produced gases.
Oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ammonia—more than thirty different gases are given off by the bacteria whose evolutionary history I was keen to reconstruct.
Why did every scientist I asked believe that atmospheric oxygen was a biological product but the other atmospheric gases—nitrogen, methane, sulfur, and so on—were not?
Lovelock believed that the gases in the atmosphere were biological. In her book Symbiotic Planet, Margulis explored the relationship between Gaia and her work on symbiosis.
She rejected the three-domain system introduced by Carl Woese in , which gained wide acceptance. She introduced a modified classification by which all life forms, including the newly discovered, could be integrated into the classical five kingdoms.
According to her the main problem, archaea, falls under the kingdom Prokaryotae alongside bacteria in contrast to the three-domain system, which treats archaea as a higher taxon than kingdom, or the six-kingdom system, which holds that it is a separate kingdom. The following describes three of these controversies.
Metamorphosis theory[ edit ] In , via a then-standard publication-process known as "communicated submission" which bypassed traditional peer review , she was instrumental in getting the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS to publish a paper by Donald I. Williamson rejecting "the Darwinian assumption that larvae and their adults evolved from a single common ancestor.
What it may do is broaden the discussion on how metamorphosis works and PNAS stated that the decision had nothing to do with the Williamson controversy.
Lynn Margulis 1938-2011 "Gaia Is A Tough Bitch"
The question which Dr James Lovelock obviously asked himself was WHY was the Earth different? The same analysis for Mars returns What was happening upon the Earth which enabled the maintenance of such an unlikely combination of chemical gases - specifically nitrogen and oxygen. What complex processes are at work within the terrestrial atmosphere - and have occurred for many billions of years - to explain this uniqueness? How have these processes arisen and what today maintains these processes at this equilibrium which is chemically far from equilibrium? Why is it so?
Meet extraordinary women who dared to bring gender equality and other issues to the forefront. From overcoming oppression, to breaking rules, to reimagining the world or waging a rebellion, these women of history have a story to tell. Margulis was raised in Chicago. Soon after, she married American astronomer Carl Sagan , with whom she had two children; one, Dorion, would become her frequent collaborator. The couple divorced in She joined the biology department of Boston University in and taught there until , when she was named distinguished university professor in the department of botany at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. She retained that title when her affiliation at the university changed to the department of biology in and then to the department of geosciences in
BACKGROUND: Primitive ExtraTerrestrial Glimpses ...
The chloroplasts of glaucophytes like this Glaucocystis have a peptidoglycan layer, evidence of their endosymbiotic origin from cyanobacteria. Weathering constant criticism of her ideas for decades, Margulis was famous for her tenacity in pushing her theory forward, despite the opposition she faced at the time. This is one of the great achievements of twentieth-century evolutionary biology, and I greatly admire her for it. Neo-Darwinism, which insists on [the slow accrual of mutations by gene-level natural selection], is in a complete funk. I noticed that all kinds of bacteria produced gases.