In my opinion, there is no one in the country who knows more about what student need to learn for Step 1 than Dr. There are currently a number of board prep materials available to medical students thanks to Dr. Goljan, let me discuss a few of them. Audio Lectures: Years ago Dr. Goljan taught a prep course for both parts of the boards, both Step 1 and Step 2. Somehow, these lectures were recorded and are now shared between medical students across the country and across the globe.
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Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, usually resulting in increased volume of the organ or tissue. Hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of cells, resulting in an increase in the size of the organ. Atrophy is the shrinkage in the size of the cell by loss of cell substance.
Metaplasia is defined as a reversible change in which one adult cell type epithelial or mesenchymal is replaced by another adult cell type.
Cell swelling is the earliest sign of a reversible cell injury. Free radical is a chemical species that have a single unpaired electron in an outer orbit. Necrosis is a spectrum of morphological changes that follow cell death in a living tissue largely resulting from the progressive degradative action of enzymes on the lethally injured cell.
Necrosis has six major type; coagulative, Caseous, Liquefactive, fibrinoid,gangrenous and Fat. Morphologically an apoptotic cell shows: a cell shrinkage, b chromatin condensation c formation of cytoplasmic blebs and apoptotic bodies, d phagocytosis by macrophages. Apoptosis has two phases a Initiation phase extrinsic and intrinsic pathways b Execution phase c phagocytosis of dead cell Genes promoting apoptosis are: bax,bak,bim Genes inhibiting apoptosis are bcl 2 family.
Dystrophic calcification is always seen in damaged tissues while metastatic calcification may occur in normal tissues whenever there is hyperplasia. Inflammation is a complex reaction to injurious agents suchj as microbes and damaged, usually necrotic cells that consists of vascular responses, migration and activation of leukocytes, and systemic reactions.
Vasodilatation is one of the earliest manifestation of acute inflammation, if follows a transient vasoconstriction of arterioles lasting few seconds. Increased vascular permeability leading to the escape of a protein-rich fluid exudate into the extravascular tissue in the HALL MARK of acute inflammation. Formation of endothelial gaps in venules is the most common cause of vascular leakage.
Selectins mainly involved in rolling of leukocytes, PECAM in transmigration and immunoglobulin family in adhesions. Chemotaxis is defined as uni directional migration of leukocytes towards the site of injury under chemical gradient action.
Most important chemotactic agents are C5a,LTB4 and bacterial products. HMPO-Halide systein is the most efficient bactericidal system in neutrophils.
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by failure of fusion of phagosome with lysosome. Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood results from inherited defects in the components of NAPDH oxidase which generates superoxide, leading to body infections.
Vasoactive amines are histamine and serotonin which are the main players of early inflammation. Plasma Proteins are: Complement system proteins, clotting system and fibrinolytic system. Prostaglandins are vasodilators. MAC C5B is the membrane attack complex, which finally kills the bacteria. Activated Hageman factor initiates FOUR systems involved in inflammatory responses Kinin, Clotting, fibrinolytic and complement system Lipoxins are bioactive products generated from transcellular biosynthetic mechanisms involving neutrophils and platelets.
Nitric oxide plays major role in production of vasodilation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle in ischemic conditions. Acute inflammation is defined as a rapid response to an injurious agent that serves to deliver mediators of host defense — leukocytes and plasma proteins to the site of injury.
Chronic inflammation is defined as an inflammation of prolonged duration, in which active inflammation, tissue destruction and attempts at repair are proceeding simultaneously. Neutrophils are the main cells of acute inflammation exudates while Mononuclear cells with one nucleus are the main cells of chronic inflammation. Mononuclear cells include Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Macrophages and Plasma cells. Macrophages are the prima donna main working cell of chronic inflammation, while lymphocytes are present in increased number.
Granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation, consisting of microscopic aggregation of macrophages that are transformed into epithelium like cells surrounded by a collar of mononuclear leukocytes.
There are 3 types of cells in the body: Continously dividing labile cells, Quiscent or stable cells and Permanent Non-dividing cells. Stem cells are cells characterized by their prolonged self renewal capacity and by the asymmetric replication. TGF-B is a growth inhibitor for most epithelial cells and leukocytes, potent fibrogenic agent and a strong anti-inflammatory effect.
Collagens is the most common protein in the animal world, with 27 types discovered so far. Healing by 2nd intention differs from 1st intention in three ways; a inflammatory reaction is more intense, b Much more granulation tissue forms and c wound contraction phenomenon.
Accumulation of excessive amounts of collagen may give rise to a hypertrophic scar while if scar tissue grows beyond the boundaries of the original wound and does not regress, it is called keloid. Edema is defined as accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces and body cavities.
Local increased volume of blood in a particular tissue leads to Hyperemia and congestion. Hyperemia is an active process, resulting from augmented tissue inflow because of arteriolar dilation while Congestion is a passive process resulting from impaired outflow from tissue.
Heart failure cells are hemosiderin laden macrophages seen in chronic pulmonary congestion. Of the inherited causes of hypercoagulability, mutation in the factor V gene and prothrombin gene are the most common. Lines of Zahn are laminated lines produced by alternating pale layers of platelets admixed with some fibrin and darker layers containing more red cells.
Fate of thrombus include: propagation embolization, dissolution, organization and recanalization. Embolus is a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin. The phenomenon is called embolism. Infarct is an area of ischemic necrosis caused by occlusion of either the arterial supply or the venous drainage in a particular tissue.
The most dominant histologic characteristic of infarction is ischemic coagulative necrosis. Shock is the systemic hypoperfusion caused by reduction either in cardiac output or in the effective circulating blood volume, and resulting in hypotension followed by impaired tissue perfusion and cellular hypoxia.
Major types of shock include: cardiogenic, hypovolemic, septic, neurogenic and anaphylactic. Mutation is defined as a permanent change in the DNA. Mainly cause by defects in an extracellular glycoprotein Firbillin Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome comprise a clinically and genetically heterogenous groups of disorders that result from some defect in the syntesis or structure of fibrillar collagen.
Amyloid is a pathologic proteinaceous substance deposited between cells in various tissues and organs of the body in a wide variety of clinical settings. Neoplasm is an abnormal mass, the growth of which exceeds and in uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change.
Carcinomas mostly use lymphatic routes and sarcomas mostly use hematogenous routes of spread. Four types of genes are normally working in human body: a proto-oncogens b antioncogenes, c apoptotic genes and d DNA repair genes Proto-oncogenes are changed to oncogenes by three processes: mutation, translocation and amplification. Chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process, divided into initiation and promotion phases. Radiation induced malignancies include leukemias and papillary carcinoma thyroid.
Major immunomarkers for epithelial tumors are cytokeratin, for mesenchymal tumor — vimentin, for leukocyte origin tumor — leukocyte common antigen, S for neural origin tumors and for skeletal muscle tumors — desmin. These instantly degranulate and release active substances into the surrounding tissue. Type II cytotoxic hypersensitivity, antibodies attach to antigens on the surfaces of a cell and then something injures or destroys the cell.
Immune reactions are divided into two broad categories: A Humoral immunity-B-cell lymphocyte mediated via production of antibody and Often develops as a response to soluble antigens, and B Cellular immunity-T-Cell lymphocyte mediated.
Major histocompatibility complex is present on all nucleated cells. The HLA system is a key factor in most Transplant rejection reactions. Reactions are mediated by either T lymphocytes or by antibody. Toll like receptors are membrane proteins that recognize a variety of microbe derived molecules and stimulate innate immune responses against the microbes.
CD4 molecule is a high affinity receptor for HIV Gamma interferon is one of the cytokine to activate macrophages and also play major Role in Granuloma formation. Cytokines are mediators released from one cell and modulate the actions of another cell. Keratin epithelial pearls,intercellular bridges and individual cell keratinization are seen. Wall sharing is often noted.
Proto-oncogenes are converted into oncogenes. RB gene activates and Works in hypophosphorylated form. Gliomas and BCC are highly malignant but dont usually metastasize. AFB is acid fase bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and called so because it resists decolourization by Concentrated Acids. Tigered lipid effect is seen in Herat. Major complement proteins include : Opsonization by C3b.
Goljan Rapid Review Pathology 5th Edition PDF Free Download | [PDF] [Free]
Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, usually resulting in increased volume of the organ or tissue. Hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of cells, resulting in an increase in the size of the organ. Atrophy is the shrinkage in the size of the cell by loss of cell substance. Metaplasia is defined as a reversible change in which one adult cell type epithelial or mesenchymal is replaced by another adult cell type. Cell swelling is the earliest sign of a reversible cell injury.
Goljan Pathology Lecture Notes PDF Free Download | [Direct Link]
Nasida Is it available on Amazon? Previous Thread Next Thread. Share This Page Tweet. The first 42 pgs are pathology so I think its similar to the 44 pg one your talking about.
Goljan Pathology High Yield Questions For USMLE
Goljan for USMLE Review