Friedrich Nietzsche Os titulos das obras de Nietzsche sao peculiares em relacao aos dos textos filosoficos em geral: na maioria deles nao encontramos termos como critica, ensaio ou tratado, mas expressoes ou substantivos evocativos, por vezes de natureza poetica. Mesmo entre esses titulos, Assim falou Zaratustra tem sua peculiaridade propria. Primeiro, quem e esse personagem? Ele se baseia numa personalidade historica, da qual, porem, sabe-se muito pouco. A ele se atribui uma concepcao do universo em que o mal ou a escuridao se acha em perene conflito com o bem ou a luz, doutrina que depois seria registrada no Zend-Avesta. Numa passagem de Ecce homo, Nietzsche justifica da seguinte maneira a escolha desse personagem: Zaratustra foi o primeiro a ver na luta entre o bem e o mal a roda motriz na engrenagem das coisas a transposicao da moral para o plano metafisico, como forca, causa, fim em si, e obra sua.
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But all joy wants eternity— Wants deep, wants deep eternity. English translators Thomas Common and R. Hollingdale use superman, while Kaufmann uses overman, and Parkes uses overhuman. Expounding these concepts, Zarathustra declares: "I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment.
And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape. But do I bid you become ghosts or plants? The overman is the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth!
I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth, and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison-mixers are they, whether they know it or not. Despisers of life are they, decaying and poisoned themselves, of whom the earth is weary: so let them go!
Walter Kaufmann The book embodies a number of innovative poetical and rhetorical methods of expression. He has, however, said that "among my writings my Zarathustra stands to my mind by itself" Ecce Homo, Preface, sec. Emphasizing its centrality and its status as his magnum opus , Nietzsche stated that: With [Thus Spoke Zarathustra] I have given mankind the greatest present that has ever been made to it so far.
This book, with a voice bridging centuries, is not only the highest book there is, the book that is truly characterized by the air of the heights—the whole fact of man lies beneath it at a tremendous distance—it is also the deepest, born out of the innermost wealth of truth, an inexhaustible well to which no pail descends without coming up again filled with gold and goodness.
With the book, Nietzsche embraced a distinct aesthetic assiduity. He later reformulated many of his ideas in Beyond Good and Evil and various other writings that he composed thereafter. He continued to emphasize his philosophical concerns; generally, his intention was to show an alternative to repressive moral codes and to avert " nihilism " in all of its varied forms.
This incomplete project began with The Antichrist. Themes[ edit ] While Nietzsche injects myriad ideas into the book, a few recurring themes stand out. Man as a race is merely a bridge between animals and the overman. Faced with the knowledge that he would repeat every action that he has taken, an overman would be elated as he has no regrets and loves life.
The will to power is the fundamental component of the human identity. Everything we do is an expression of self-realization that can sometimes take a form of a will to power. The will to power is a psychological analysis of all human action and is accentuated by self-overcoming and self-enhancement.
Many criticisms of Christianity can be found in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, in particular Christian values of good and evil and its belief in an afterlife. The basis for his critique of Christianity lies in the perceived squandering of our earthly lives in pursuit of a perfect afterlife, of which there is no evidence. Judeo-Christian values are more thoroughly examined in On the Genealogy of Morals as a product of what he calls "slave morality".
Style[ edit ] Noteworthy for its format, the book comprises a philosophical work of fiction whose style often lightheartedly imitates that of the New Testament and of the Platonic dialogues, at times resembling pre-Socratic works in tone and in its use of natural phenomena as rhetorical and explanatory devices.
It also features frequent references to the Western literary and philosophical traditions, implicitly offering an interpretation of these traditions and of their problems. Nietzsche achieves all of this through the character of Zarathustra referring to the traditional prophet of Zoroastrianism , who makes speeches on philosophic topics as he moves along a loose plotline marking his development and the reception of his ideas.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra remained unpopular as a topic for scholars especially those in the Anglo-American analytic tradition until the second half of the twentieth century brought widespread interest in Nietzsche and his unconventional style that does not distinguish between philosophy and literature.
Resenha: Assim falou Zaratustra, de Friedrich Nietzsche
But all joy wants eternity— Wants deep, wants deep eternity. English translators Thomas Common and R. Hollingdale use superman, while Kaufmann uses overman, and Parkes uses overhuman. Expounding these concepts, Zarathustra declares: "I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome.
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