Yorr The concluding chapter provides an overview cruytenden the state of the art in intonational studies. Mahmoud marked it as to-read Apr 27, Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Paolo marked it as to-read Dec 27, Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. Hernan Oyola rated it really liked it Aug 31, No trivia or quizzes yet. Paul added it Sep 04, In this updated edition, while the basic descriptive facts of the form and use of intonation are presented in the British nuclear tone tradition, there is nevertheless extensive comparison with other theoretical frameworks, in particular with When originally published inthis book was the first to survey intonation in cruttfnden its aspects, both in English and universally. In this new edition Alan Cruttenden has expanded the sections on historical background, different theoretical approaches and sociolinguistic variation.
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British analyses[ edit ] British descriptions of English intonation can be traced back to the 16th century. Palmer  broke up the intonation of such units into smaller components, the most important of which was the nucleus, which corresponds to the main accented syllable of the intonation unit, usually in the last lexical word of the intonation unit.
Each nucleus carries one of a small number of nuclear tones, usually including fall, rise, fall-rise, rise-fall, and possibly others. The nucleus may be preceded by a head containing stressed syllables preceding the nucleus, and a tail consisting of syllables following the nucleus within the tone unit. Unstressed syllables preceding the head if present or nucleus if there is no head constitute a pre-head.
This "Standard British" treatment of intonation in its present-day form is explained in detail by Wells  and in a simplified version by Roach. The transcription of intonation in such approaches is normally incorporated into the line of text. An influential development in British studies of intonation has been Discourse Intonation, an offshoot of Discourse Analysis first put forward by David Brazil. The description of intonation in this approach owes much to Halliday.
Intonation is analysed purely in terms of pitch movements and "key" and makes little reference to the other prosodic features usually thought to play a part in conversational interaction. American approaches[ edit ] The dominant framework used for American English from the s to the s was based on the idea of pitch phonemes, or tonemes. In the work of Trager and Smith  there are four contrastive levels of pitch: low 1 , middle 2 , high 3 , and very high 4.
Unfortunately, the important work of Kenneth Pike on the same subject  had the four pitch levels labelled in the opposite way, with 1 being high and 4 being low. In its final form, the Trager and Smith system was highly complex, each pitch phoneme having four pitch allophones or allotones ; there was also a Terminal Contour to end an intonation clause, as well as four stress phonemes. The American linguist Dwight Bolinger carried on a long campaign to argue that pitch contours were more important in the study of intonation than individual pitch levels.
Very high pitch is for strong emotion or emphasis. Declarative sentences show a 2—3—1 pitch pattern. If the last syllable is prominent the final decline in pitch is a glide. For example, in This is fun, this is is at pitch 2, and fun starts at level 3 and glides down to level 1. But if the last prominent syllable is not the last syllable of the utterance, the pitch fall-off is a step. For example, in That can be frustrating, That can be has pitch 2, frus- has level 3, and both syllables of -trating have pitch 1.
But if something is left unsaid, the final pitch level 1 is replaced by pitch 2. Another example is Has 2 the 2 plane 3 left 3 already 3, 3, 3? And for example the latter question could also be framed without subject-verb inversion but with the same pitch contour: The 2 plane 2 has 2 left 2 already 2, 3, 3? Questions with or can be ambiguous in English writing with regard to whether they are either-or questions or yes—no questions.
But intonation in speech eliminates the ambiguity. For example, Would 2 you 2 like 2 juice 3 or 2 soda 3, 1? In contrast, Would 2 you 2 like 2 juice 3 or 3 soda 3, 3? Thus the two basic sentence pitch contours are rising-falling and rising. However, other within-sentence rises and falls result from the placement of prominence on the stressed syllables of certain words.
For declaratives or wh-questions with a final decline, the decline is located as a step-down to the syllable after the last prominently stressed syllable, or as a down-glide on the last syllable itself if it is prominently stressed. But for final rising pitch on yes—no questions, the rise always occurs as an upward step to the last stressed syllable, and the high 3 pitch is retained through the rest of the sentence.
The ToBI system[ edit ] A more recent approach to the analysis of intonation grew out of the research of Janet Pierrehumbert  and developed into the system most widely known by the name of ToBI short for "Tones and Break Indices".
The approach is sometimes referred to as autosegmental. The most important points of this system are the following: Only two tones, associated with pitch accents, are recognised, these being H high and L low ; all other tonal contours are made up of combinations of H, L and some other modifying elements. In addition to the two tones mentioned above, the phonological system includes "break indices" used to mark the boundaries between prosodic elements.
Breaks may be of different levels. Tones are linked to stressed syllables: an asterisk is used to indicate a tone that must be aligned with a stressed syllable. In addition, there are phrasal accents which signal the pitch at the end of an intermediate phrase e.
A full ToBI transcription includes not only the above phonological elements, but also the acoustic signal on which the transcription is based. The ToBI system is intended to be used in computer-based transcription.
A simplified example of a ToBI transcription is given below. The continuation pattern is a rise in pitch occurring in the last syllable of a rhythm group typically a phrase. The finality pattern is a sharp fall in pitch occurring in the last syllable of a declarative statement. Continuation pattern[ edit ] The most distinctive feature of French intonation is the continuation pattern.
While many languages, such as English and Spanish , place stress on a particular syllable of each word, and while many speakers of languages such as English may accompany this stress with a rising intonation, French has neither stress nor distinctive intonation on a given syllable. Instead, on the final syllable of every "rhythm group" except the last one in a sentence, there is placed a rising pitch.
Adjectives are in the same rhythm group as their noun. Finality pattern[ edit ] As can be seen in the example sentences above, a sharp fall in pitch is placed on the last syllable of a declarative statement. The preceding syllables of the final rhythm group are at a relatively high pitch.
A form found in both spoken and written French is the Est-ce que Information question pattern[ edit ] Information questions begin with a question word such as qui, pourquoi, combien, etc. The question word may be followed in French by est-ce que as in English " where is it that The sentence starts at a relatively high pitch which falls away rapidly after the question word, or its first syllable in case of a pollysyllabic question word.
There may be a small increase in pitch on the final syllable of the question. In both cases, the question both begins and ends at higher pitches than does a declarative sentence.
In informal speech, the question word is sometimes put at the end of the sentence. In this case, the question ends at a high pitch, often with a slight rise on the high final syllable. Mandarin Chinese[ edit ] Mandarin Chinese is a tonal language so pitch contours within a word distinguish the word from other words with the same vowels and consonants.
Nevertheless, Mandarin also has intonation patterns that indicate the nature of the sentence as a whole. There are four basic sentence types having distinctive intonation: declarative sentences, unmarked interrogative questions, yes—no questions marked as such with the sentence-final particle ma, and A-not-A questions of the form "He go not go" meaning "Does he go or not? In the Beijing dialect , they are intonationally distinguished for the average speaker as follows, using a pitch scale from 1 lowest to 9 highest :   Declarative sentences go from pitch level 3 to 5 and then down to 2 and 1.
A-not-A questions go from 6 to 9 to 2 to 1. Yes—no ma questions go from 6 to 9 to 4 to 5. Unmarked questions go from 6 to 9 to 4 to 6. Thus, questions are begun with a higher pitch than are declarative sentences; pitch rises and then falls in all sentences; and in yes—no questions and unmarked questions pitch rises at the end of the sentence, while for declarative sentences and A-not-A questions the sentence ends at very low pitch.
Because Mandarin distinguishes words on the basis of within-syllable tones, these tones create fluctuations of pitch around the sentence patterns indicated above. Thus, sentence patterns can be thought of as bands whose pitch varies over the course of the sentence, and changes of syllable pitch cause fluctuations within the band.
Furthermore, the details of Mandarin intonation are affected by various factors like the tone of the final syllable, the presence or absence of focus centering of attention on the final word, and the dialect of the speaker. Chander Shekhar Singh carried forward a description of the experimental phonetics and phonology of Punjabi intonation based on sentences read in isolation.
His research design is based on the classification of two different levels of intonation horizontal level and vertical level. The first experiment at the horizontal level is conducted to investigate three utterance types: declarative, imperative, and interrogative. In his second experiment, the investigation of sentences is conducted to view intonation but in vertical sense. The vertical level demonstrates four different types of accentuations in Punjabi: Normal statement.
ALAN CRUTTENDEN INTONATION PDF