ANTIMICROBIAL BRYOPHYTES JOURNAL PDF

A recent study suggests that some of the liverworts and moss possess strong antioxidative machinery which helps them to survive in the extreme climate and stress condition. Heavy metal, desiccation, and ultraviolet radiation have been found to trigger an array of different enzymes in bryophytes Few of the bryophyte species have been found to hyper accumulate metals, and few others were able to sequester the toxic metals. The study conducted on antioxidant activity of the Antarctic mosses Sanioniauncinata Hedw. Loeske and Polytrichastrum alpinum Hedw. Also, also the antioxidant activity of some of the species of bryophyte like Atrichumundulatum Hedw.

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A recent study suggests that some of the liverworts and moss possess strong antioxidative machinery which helps them to survive in the extreme climate and stress condition. Heavy metal, desiccation, and ultraviolet radiation have been found to trigger an array of different enzymes in bryophytes Few of the bryophyte species have been found to hyper accumulate metals, and few others were able to sequester the toxic metals.

The study conducted on antioxidant activity of the Antarctic mosses Sanioniauncinata Hedw. Loeske and Polytrichastrum alpinum Hedw. Also, also the antioxidant activity of some of the species of bryophyte like Atrichumundulatum Hedw. Out of the three extracts, Brachythecium rutabulum have shown the highest of the phenolic content, which further suggested the potential of this extract in search of many other novel antioxidant compounds in this moss.

Apart from this methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of Marchantia polymorpha L. Summing up, bryophyte could be the source of many novel antioxidants if screened which could be used for novel drug discovery. Bryophytes as a Potential Biopharming for Production of Complex Biopharmaceuticals: Bryophytes have indeed penetrated the forefront of modern medicines. Although an avast variety of biopharmaceuticals has been produced in microbial or mammalian cells, plants based production system possesses several advantages over the mammalian and microbial system, thus, making them interesting alternatives.

Microbial systems are favored because of easy cultivation and high productivity, whereas mammalian cell lines preferentially Chinese Hamster Ovary cells are favored for complex multimeric proteins or those requiring posttranslational modifications 82, In contrast to these currently used systems, plants based production system possesses several advantages over this system, thus making them interesting alternatives. As higher eukaryotes, they perform posttranslational modifications closely resembling those of humans, thus minimizing the risk of product contamination by infectious agents derive from the used cells or media 84, Also, bryophytes offer the researchers and the company a high production system which can be grown without antibiotics, hence avoiding the danger of contamination of the final product.

Apart from these advantages, mosses are the only plants known to show a high frequency of homologous recombination. They allow the stable integration of inserted genes into the host cell. Furthermore, the highly complex moss system, compared to bacteria and fungi, permits a much wider array of expression than is possible in other systems. Given the above advantages of mosses over another production system, today, many complex biopharmaceuticals are being produced by moss bioreactors.

The Chair of plant Biotechnology from the University of Freiburg, Germany, and the biopharmaceutical company Greenovation Biotech Gmbh in Heilbronn, Germany; have started a cooperation to enhance the yield of recombinant proteins from moss. The moss Physcomitrella patens has been successfully grown in a bioreactor which requires only water and minerals to nourish the moss, in the presence of light and CO2 Greenovation. Consequently, many complex proteins can be produced in moss bioreactor.

Other products are human growth factor that is required by the researcher for tissue culture. This plant has successfully been able to produce human proteins 86, 87, and is the only plant being used to produce the blood-clotting factor IX for pharmaceutical use.

Herbal drugs have been used successfully in the treatment of various ailments over the last few decades. Natural products derived from the botanicals can be used as a substitute to solve the problem. Several herbal compounds have been discovered with immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, to meet the potential future demand for various bioactive compounds used as drugs, a new production system is required significantly. Bryophyte, a small and insignificant group of plants, may serve as a source of some unique biologically active molecules.

Many of the bryophytes are important source of medicine, antibacterial, and antifungal agents. Antifungal efficacy of certain liverworts and mosses can substitute the conventional synthetic fungicides used in crop protection, especially in the countries where fungal invasion in the crop fields is a common phenomenon.

Several bryophytes are able to produce antifungal compounds. Furthermore, the use of moos bioreactor has opened new possibilities for the production of many plant and animal metabolites. Future scope: In the past few years, rapid progress has been made to isolate various plant-based therapeutic compounds.

Bryophytes being a rich source of a variety of secondary metabolites could be a promising source of the bioactive compounds with immense therapeutic potential. Being present in the varied niche and occupying the most diverse group of the plant kingdom, they could be the source of various evolved metabolic pathways that could be wisely manipulated for the development of various novel therapeutic compounds. Therefore, bioprospecting of bryophytes is required to discover the natural wealth of bryophytes.

Creation and development of a production system by using bryophyte cells could solve the future demand of a novel plant-based production system. Hence, engineering of a metabolic pathway for the production of novel metabolites, and strategies for the development of the bioprocess for bryophyte cell system is the need of time to dig out some more information to satisfy the thirst of novel drug discovery.

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Journal Hattori Botanical Laboratory ; In: Nath V. Planta ; Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials ; 5 5 : Phytochemistry ; Vaughn SF: Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of 5, 7-dihydroxychromone from peanut shells. Journal of Chemical Ecology ; Pharmacological Research ; Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; Tamm Eds. Springer ; Oxford: Pergamon Press ; Markham KR: Bryophytes, flavonoids their structure distribution, and evolutionary significance.

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Nath V and Astana AK eds. Bishen singh Mahendra Pal Singh.

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ANTIMICROBIAL BRYOPHYTES JOURNAL PDF

Mezijinn Occurance of antibiotic activity in Conocephalum conicum, Mnium umdulatum and Leptodictyum riparium. Streptomycin appeared most effective against E. For example, Lunularia cruciata, Plagiochila porelloides and Marchantia polymorphia showed inhibition zones greater than 2. All extracts were stored at room temperature.

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